Infectious and parasitic diseases remain the major killers of children in the developing world, partly as a result of the HIV/AIDS epidemic.
According to estimates by UNAIDS and WHO, more than four million children under the age of 15 have been infected with HIV since the epidemic began.
Unfortunately though, the majority of people in need of treatment are still not receiving it, and campaigns to prevent new infections ... The earliest known cases of human HIV infection have been linked to western equatorial Africa, probably in southeast Cameroon where groups of the central common chimpanzee live. revealed that all HIV-1 strains known to infect humans, including HIV-1 groups M, N, and O, were closely related to just one of these SIVcpz lineages: that found in P. Current hypotheses also include that, once the virus jumped from chimpanzees or other apes to humans, the colonial medical practices of the 20th century helped HIV become established in human populations by 1930.
The virus likely moved from primates to humans when hunters came into contact with the blood of infected primates.
Because HIV infection often progresses quickly to AIDS in children, most of the children under 15 who have been infected have developed AIDS, and most of these children have died.
Another 13 million children have lost their mother or both parents to the disease ( See CAH website).The hunters then became infected with HIV and passed on the disease to other humans through bodily fluid contamination. HIV made the leap from rural isolation to rapid urban transmission as a result of urbanization that occurred during the 20th century.There are many reasons for which there is such prevalence of AIDS in Africa.HIV emerged in Africa in the 1960s and traveled to the United States and Europe the following decade.In the 1980s it spread silently across the globe until it became a pandemic, or widespread.Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a fatal disease caused by the slow-acting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).The virus multiplies in the body until it causes immune system damage, leading to diseases of the AIDS syndrome.Among these are combination prevention programmes, considered to be the most effective initiative, such as the abstinence, be faithful, use a condom campaign and the Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation's outreach programs. Botswana, for example, lost 17% of its healthcare workforce due to AIDS between 19. The toll of HIV and AIDS on households can be very severe. [I]t is often the poorest sectors of society that are most vulnerable.... AIDS causes the household to dissolve, as parents die and children are sent to relatives for care and upbringing. Much happens before this dissolution takes place: AIDS strips families of their assets and income earners, further impoverishing the poor. Upon a family member becoming ill, the role of women as carers, income-earners and housekeepers is stepped up. As parents and family members become ill, children take on more responsibility to earn an income, produce food, and care for family members. [M]ore children have been orphaned by AIDS in Africa than anywhere else.According to a 2013 special report issued by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the number of HIV positive people in Africa receiving anti-retroviral treatment in 2012 was over seven times the number receiving treatment in 2005, "with nearly 1 million added in the last year alone". has caused immense human suffering in the continent. They are often forced to step into roles outside their homes as well. Older people are also heavily affected by the epidemic; many have to care for their sick children and are often left to look after orphaned grandchildren. It is hard to overemphasise the trauma and hardship that children ... Many children are now raised by their extended families and some are even left on their own in child-headed households. HIV and AIDS are having a devastating effect on the already inadequate supply of teachers in African countries.... in 2006 it was estimated that around 45,000 additional teachers were needed to make up for those who had died or left work because of HIV.... has been among adults aged between 20 and 49 years.In the late 1980s, international development agencies regarded AIDS control as a technical medical problem rather than one involving all areas of economic and social life.Because public health authorities perceived AIDS to be an urban phenomenon associated with prostitution, they believed that the majority of Africans who lived in "traditional" rural areas would be spared.