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Corruption can occur in many sectors, whether they be public or private industry or even NGOs (especially in public sector).
Recent research by the World Bank suggests that who makes policy decisions (elected officials or bureaucrats) can be critical in determining the level of corruption because of the incentives different policy-makers face. The original caption for the cartoon is: "THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR INVESTIGATING THE INDIAN BUREAU.
A political cartoon from Harper's Weekly, January 26, 1878, depicting U. Secretary of the Interior Carl Schurz investigating the Indian Bureau at the U. GIVE HIM HIS DUE, AND GIVE THEM THEIR DUES." Political corruption is the abuse of public power, office, or resources by elected government officials for personal gain, by extortion, soliciting or offering bribes.
Political corruption occurs when an office-holder or other governmental employee acts in an official capacity for personal gain.
Corruption is most commonplace in kleptocracies, oligarchies, narco-states and mafia states.
In general, corruption is a form of dishonesty or criminal activity undertaken by a person or organization entrusted with a position of authority, often to acquire illicit benefit, or, abuse of entrusted power for one's private gain.
Corruption may include many activities including bribery and embezzlement, though it may also involve practices that are legal in many countries.
For example, in many small places such as registration offices, police stations, state licensing boards, and many other private and government sectors.
Grand corruption is defined as corruption occurring at the highest levels of government in a way that requires significant subversion of the political, legal and economic systems.
Despite the investment, the "Golden Toilet" remained closed for years due to the dysfunctionality and was a subject of a lengthy anti-corruption investigation into those who had created it and The group of public servants involved in the toilet's procurement received various prison sentences for recklessness, malfeasance, misuse of power and document falsifications in a 2012 court case, but were cleared of their corruption charges and received compensation, which pushed the total construction cost and subsequent related financial losses to 352,000 euros.
Various sources acclaim the Spanish People's Party – Partido Popular -, to be Europe's most corrupt party, with about yearly 45 billion euro worth of corruption.