The American Psychological Association (APA) style is, originally, a set of rules that authors use when submitting papers for publications in the journals of the APA.
Established in 1929, the style has since been used to guide research writers and help them achieve – through the use of established standards for language, the construction of correct reference citations, the avoidance of plagiarism, the proper use of headers, among many others – "minimum distraction and maximum precision".
These words include: adds, argues, claims, denies, illustrates, grants, notes, observes, suggests, etc.
You could also use the standard “said.” This is expressed in the sample below: As you can see in the example above, the authors’ names appear first (last name, first name).
Then the year of publication is given in parentheses.
Then the title is listed (with only the first word of the title, the first word after the colon, and proper nouns capitalized).
It's always best to check with your instructor and colleagues as to what style is appropriate.
If you have flexibility, use the guide below to help you decide.
Citation styles dictate more than just in-text citation and reference list formatting.
They also have rules for how to structure your paper and, in some cases, the cover sheet for your paper.