All the dissertation referees must already have achieved at least the academic degree that the candidate is trying to reach.
At English-speaking Canadian universities, writings presented in fulfillment of undergraduate coursework requirements are normally called papers, term papers or essays.
A thesis or dissertation committee is a committee that supervises a student's dissertation.
In the US, these committees usually consist of a primary supervisor or advisor and two or more committee members, who supervise the progress of the dissertation and may also act as the examining committee, or jury, at the oral examination of the thesis (see below).
An ordinary monograph has a title page, an abstract, a table of contents, comprising the various chapters like introduction, literature review, methodology, results, discussion, and bibliography or more usually a references section.
They differ in their structure in accordance with the many different areas of study (arts, humanities, social sciences, technology, sciences, etc.) and the differences between them.The structure of a thesis or dissertation explains the purpose, the previous research literature impinging on the topic of the study, the methods used, and the findings of the project.Most world universities use a multiple chapter format : Degree-awarding institutions often define their own house style that candidates have to follow when preparing a thesis document.Correspondingly to the academic degree, the last phase of an academic thesis is called in Spanish a defensa de grado, defensa magistral or defensa doctoral in cases in which the university candidate is finalizing his or her licentiate, master's, or Ph D program.According to a committee resolution, the dissertation can be approved or rejected by an academic committee consisting of the thesis director, the thesis coordinator, and at least one evaluator from another recognized university in which the student is pursuing his or her academic program.Aristotle was the first philosopher to define the term thesis."A 'thesis' is a supposition of some eminent philosopher that conflicts with the general opinion..to take notice when any ordinary person expresses views contrary to men's usual opinions would be silly"., meaning "something put forth", and refers to an intellectual proposition."Dissertation" comes from the Latin dissertātiō, meaning "discussion".For Aristotle, a thesis would therefore be a supposition that is stated in contradiction with general opinion or express disagreement with other philosophers (104b33-35).A supposition is a statement or opinion that may or may not be true depending on the evidence and/or proof that is offered (152b32).