Essays On New France

Essays On New France-25
gift diplomacy: In the context of European-Aboriginal relations, the practice of renewing — annually or otherwise regularly — diplomatic relations and alliances by providing gifts to leadership figures.It includes the practice of “covering the dead,” a round of gift-giving following wartime deaths of an ally’s soldiers.

gift diplomacy: In the context of European-Aboriginal relations, the practice of renewing — annually or otherwise regularly — diplomatic relations and alliances by providing gifts to leadership figures.

established the ground rules for slavery in the French colonies.

This included a prohibition of any religion other than Catholicism, the range of discipline permissible, and the conditions required for manumission (freeing of slaves).

Without firing a single the French inherited “widowed lands” from the indigenous peoples.

They were able to fit into the economic niche of food producers that had previously been filled by the Stadaconans, Hochelagans, and — after 1649 — the Wendat.

(By contrast, in the English colonies to the south, especially in the plantation colonies, there was almost immediate and long-running competition with Aboriginal neighbours over land for farming.) Early Canadiens were not so land-hungry — not because they were more restrained or enlightened in their respect for Aboriginal property; their numbers were limited and they needed Aboriginal peoples as trade partners.

This relationship almost immediately embroiled the French in local conflicts in which they were obliged to participate or risk losing trade.In sum, the French colonial model created dangers that were not helpful in attracting settlers.The long battle with the Haudenosaunee Five Nations that ran almost uninterrupted from 1609 to 1701 is the best example of this limitation.In France in particular, the Crown got much richer, as did the traders based in the coastal port cities (of which both Cartier and Champlain were representative).The Crown and the regional bourgeoisie became unlikely allies.Due to their small population, their reliance on trade, and their half-hearted commitment to agriculture (and thus land), French colonists needed to develop strong ties to Aboriginal communities.In part due to the assiduous cultivation of those ties for trade and security purposes, the French were eventually able to exert influence over a large territory within North America.Elsewhere, the French simply lacked the wherewithal to push anyone around, let alone off their land, although they might do so with the assistance of Aboriginal force (which always brought its own agenda).Large-scale immigration was also held back by the peculiar economic conditions of northern New France.The French regime spent a fortune on naval supplies and shipping — as did the British government — and these navies served not only to protect the colonial investments but to threaten the colonies of the other empires as well.They also played a role in relations with the Aboriginal host communities, as Chapter 5 shows.

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