Few empirical tests of the relation between gender inequality and sexualization exist, and there are even fewer tests of alternative hypotheses.
We examined aggregate patterns in 68,562 sexualized self-portrait photographs (“sexy selfies”) shared publicly on Twitter and Instagram and their association with city-, county-, and cross-national indicators of gender inequality.
The effect of education in determining norms is significant though complex, and spans own and spousal education, as well as that of older females in the household.
This indicates sharing of education norms effects or externalities arising from spousal education in the production of gender education gap norms within marriage as well as arising from the presence of older educated females in the household.
The findings show reproduction of a gendered normative order through two types of norms and practices: one, norms and practices that favor men and second, socio-cultural norms that devalue women in public spaces which help to maintain masculinity in the workplace. https://doi.org/10.1108/EDI-04-2016-0029 Download as .
Although these practices might be found elsewhere in the world, the manner in which they are enacted reflects national cultural norms. Publicly displayed, sexualized depictions of women have proliferated, enabled by new communication technologies, including the internet and mobile devices.These depictions are often claimed to be outcomes of a culture of gender inequality and female oppression, but, paradoxically, recent rises in sexualization are most notable in societies that have made strong progress toward gender parity.We then investigated the association between sexy-selfie prevalence and income inequality, positing that sexualization—a marker of high female competition—is greater in environments in which incomes are unequal and people are preoccupied with relative social standing.Among 5,567 US cities and 1,622 US counties, areas with relatively more sexy selfies were more economically unequal but not more gender oppressive.A complementary pattern emerged cross-nationally (113 nations): Income inequality positively covaried with sexy-selfie prevalence, particularly within more developed nations.To externally validate our findings, we investigated and confirmed that economically unequal (but not gender-oppressive) areas in the United States also had greater aggregate sales in goods and services related to female physical appearance enhancement (beauty salons and women’s clothing).Prominent features include depictions of reproductive-aged women in overtly revealing clothing and generalized concerns about the sexualization of young girls (2).Ample evidence shows that Western culture is becoming more sexualized (3, 4), but disagreement surrounds the extent to which this trend reflects male or female interests (1, 5, 6).Using a recent household survey for two cohorts of married women, this paper examines norms about gender equality in education for children and adults.Among the main findings are that gender education gap norms have changed: younger generations of women are more positive about female vs.