Previously, only two peer-reviewed research articles have examined CSOs from the epidemiological perspective.In Norway, Wentzel and colleagues (2008) examined CSOs within the family context using two questions based on the Lie/Bet instrument and identified 2.0% of the population as CSOs .
Previously, only two peer-reviewed research articles have examined CSOs from the epidemiological perspective.In Norway, Wentzel and colleagues (2008) examined CSOs within the family context using two questions based on the Lie/Bet instrument and identified 2.0% of the population as CSOs .Tags: Yeats Essay MagicPhilosophy Of Education EssaysMphil Thesis In EnglishCritical Thinking DevelopmentCreative Writing Jobs From HomeDoctoral Thesis Computer ScienceThe Business Planning Process
In order to develop efficient and targeted support and services for CSOs, it is necessary to understand the correlates related to different subgroups of CSOs.
At the population level, estimated problem-gambling prevalence rates vary between countries, from 0.2 to 5.3% .
Also, divorced marital status [3, 9] and separated status  have been associated with being a CSO.
In regard to gender, single males have been found to be the most prevalent type of CSO, while being a single parent was more likely to be associated with being female.
The data (n = 4484) were based on a cross-sectional population study.
Structured telephone interviews were conducted in 2011–2012.In the best fitting model, the odds ratio (95% CI) of being a male CSO was 2.03 (1.24–3.31) for past-year gambling problems, 1.46 (1.08–1.97) for loneliness and 1.78 (1.38–2.29) for risky alcohol consumption.The odds ratio (95% CI) of being a female CSO was 1.51 (1.09–2.08) for past-year gambling involvement, 3.05 (1.18-7.90) for past-year gambling problems, 2.21 (1.24–3.93) for mental health problems, 1.39 (1.03–1.89) for loneliness and 1.97 (1.43–2.71) for daily smoking.The broadness of different definitions for CSOs varies: the CSOs of the person with gambling problems can be parents, spouses, a boyfriend/girlfriend, own children or any other family members or relatives, or more distant friends or colleagues .It has been proposed that each gambler’s gambling problem has destructive effects on as many as 7 to 16 other people [10, 11].There is also evidence of gender differences, which should be taken into account in prevention and developing support for gambling problems .Concerned significant others (CSOs) refer to people in the surrounding environment of a person who has gambling problems [2, 3, 9].In Sweden, Svensson and colleagues  studied CSOs by using a somewhat wider and more open approach and identified 18.2% of the population as CSOs .However, the Swedish study did not define how the CSOs were related to the person who was considered to have or to have had gambling problems.CSOs of problem gamblers often experience cumulating problems such as their own risky gambling behaviour, health problems and other addictive disorders.The clearest gender difference was seen in smoking by CSO.