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Man suffers various environmental changes as a result of inappropriate agricultural practices coupled with unscrupulous destructions of various important elements in the environment.Climate change is perhaps the most serious environmental threat to the fight against hunger, malnutrition, disease and poverty in Africa, mainly through its impact on agricultural productivity.
Global warming means that many dry areas are going to get drier and wet areas are going to get wetter.
Peer-reviewed research accepted by the Journal of Geography and Regional Planning concludes that Nigeria’s average temperature has risen by 1.7 degrees in the period 1901-2005.
Rough estimates suggest that over the next 50years or so climatic change will likely have a serious threat to meeting global food needs than any other constraints on agricultural system. Available evidence shows that climate change is global; sea level rose about 17 centimetres (6.7 inches) in the last century and the rate has doubled in the last decade, there has been a rise in the global temperature even though the 2000s witnessed a solar output decline resulting in an unusually deep solar minimum in 2007-2009, surface temperatures continue to increase, glaciers are retreating almost everywhere around the world including in the Alps, Himalayas, Andes, Rockies, Alaska and Africa, likewise its impacts but the most adverse effects will be felt mainly by developing countries, especially those in Africa, due to their low level of coping capabilities (Nwafor 2007; Jagtap 2007).
Nigeria is viewed as one of these developing countries (Odjugo, 2010).
It affects agriculture in several ways, including its direct impact on food production.
Climate change which is attributable to the natural climate cycle and human activities, has adversely affected agricultural productivity in Africa (Ziervogel . That there is a change in the global climatic system is no longer in doubt.
The recent changes in the climate have been linked with the increase in greenhouse gases (GHG) on the atmosphere in addition to anthropogenic activities and support emissions of other artificial chlorocarbons (Olanrewaju, 2003).
Climate change is also believed to result from the effect of global warming on the environment.
Through a combination of overgrazing, abuse of woodland for fuel and increasingly unreliable rainfall, the Sahara is advancing at an estimated rate of 600 meters per annum, rising sea levels threaten Nigeria’s coastal regions the Niger Delta may be the source of oil wealth but its low-lying terrain crisis-crossed with waterways makes it extremely vulnerable to flooding and salinization i.e.
the build-up of salts in soil eventually to toxic level for plant.