Newspaper Business Models Research

Newspaper Business Models Research-18
Unless there is significant intervention at policy level, seems that stakeholders in the monograph publishing landscape will continue to operate with mixed models.Looking to other countries and continents such as the USA, one sees a similar situation.The paper describes the business models adopted by members both from the point of view of publishers, and of service providers such as Knowledge Unlatched, as well as looking at models emerging elsewhere such as in the USA and at national level in some European countries, where interesting collaborative approaches are being undertaken.

Unless there is significant intervention at policy level, seems that stakeholders in the monograph publishing landscape will continue to operate with mixed models.Looking to other countries and continents such as the USA, one sees a similar situation.The paper describes the business models adopted by members both from the point of view of publishers, and of service providers such as Knowledge Unlatched, as well as looking at models emerging elsewhere such as in the USA and at national level in some European countries, where interesting collaborative approaches are being undertaken.

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Many university presses receive a regular endowment to fund part of their operations, for both OA and traditional publishing.

This is particularly prevalent in the USA where subsiding university presses to a certain degree has always been common, and where philanthropy to support higher education institutions is far more common than in Europe.

The models identified include library crowdsourcing or partnership subsidy, institutional crowdfunding, book processing charges (BPCs) paid by the author or their institution or funder, grants, national and EU funding, revenue from commercial activities such as print sales or service provision, community volunteering (replacing paid labour costs) and institutional funding.

Several open access publishers use a combination of these models.

This is due to the disparate nature of the publishers, their ‘bibliodiversity’ and multilingual nature, and the general lack of funding in SSH compared with STEM.

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Although the range of models described presents opportunities for smaller stakeholders or specific fields, it poses challenges for sustainability and growth.This paper addresses the main business models currently used by open access publishers, with a particular focus on the situation of European publishers in the social sciences and humanities, especially monographs.What is apparent is that while the APC or hybrid model has come to dominate in OA journal publishing, OA monograph publishing in SSH is demonstrating a greater range of business models, creating a patchwork landscape.Examples of use: many US university presses Pros: Where such schemes are well established such as in the USA, endowments can form a vital source of ongoing funding, usually to subsidise portion of a university press’s operational costs on a regular basis.Cons: This is not a guaranteed source of income, and the practice is not widespread enough for it to be a serious option, especially in Europe where philanthropy for universities or their presses is not common.For monographs and journals in the Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences (AHSS) we see a different picture.There are a number of open access business models in operation for monographs and AHSS journals, as identified in many different reports and articles (Crossick, Monographs and Open Access, HEFCE, 2015 / Ferwerda, Pinter and Stern, Landscape Study on Open Access and Monographs, Knowledge Exchange, 2017 / Deegan and Jubb, Academic Book of the Future, AHRC and British Library, 2017).July 2018 DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1323707 The white paper on Business Models for Open Access proposes that there is no single ideal business model for Open Access that can be adopted as standard.It describes the current landscape in which there are multiple approaches to OA publishing, many of which are adopted by OPERAS members to suit their particular circumstances, although the APC and BPC models still predominate especially among commercial publishers.This section identifies the main business models currently used in open access publishing, and some of the key pros and cons of each model.These were presented at the OPERAS Conference in Athens in June 2018.

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