At the same time, job and work security have decreased.
For effort–reward imbalance and organizational injustice, the excess risk was 58% and 62%, respectively.
Kivimäki and his co-workers concluded that observational data suggest an average of 50% excess risk for CHD for employees with work stress.
It is now generally recognized that, as a result of these developments, work-related stress has become a major public health problem with serious consequences for the individual, companies, and society.
Although the concept of stress is very popular, both in the academic world and in the everyday world, it has been difficult to agree on the exact scientific definition.
Interestingly, the associations between long domestic, commuting, and total workhours and subsequent morbidity have been found to be attenuated in combination with high control over workhours (16).
This is an important finding, as it suggests that providing employees with control over worktimes may promote both employee health and a successful combination of full-time paid work and domestic responsibilities.
He emphasizes the following four developments: increased internationalization and competition, increased utilization of information and communication technology, the changing configuration of the workforce, and flexibility and new organizational practices.
He concludes that new systems of work organization have become more prevalent, but do no not represent a radical change across the whole economy, and that their effects (good or bad) depend on their design, implementation, and management.
The most striking development is the changing nature of work itself—from physical to mental.
Another major development is that the significance of time and time-related activities in work has increased.