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Much teaching about race focuses on refuting biological racism, especially on rejecting (e).But rejecting (e) is not sufficient to undermine (g) normative social stratification.
And since the demise of aristocracy, which justified the assignment of rank and privilege according to birth rather than merit, it has become equally evident that (b) ancestry, (c) linked to a geographical territory of origins, is a morally irrelevant basis for distributing basic goods and opportunities.
Rejecting (f) is crucial to the colorblind position.
Because this bibliography is thematically organized, the same work may appear more than once, sometimes with page references to the portion of the work particularly focused on the given theme.
The focus is on race, particularly on whites and blacks in the U.
Race and Gender Inequality in the United States Arguments for Affirmative Action Policies Arguments Against Affirmative Action Policies Affirmative Action in Education Outcome Studies of Affirmative Action Alternatives to Affirmative Action Legal Cases about Affirmative Action Recent Legal Decisions on Affirmative Action Sources on the Web Concepts of race, gender, and other ascriptive identities (e.g., ethnicity, caste) are understood and used in different ways.
Because the same words are used to refer to different conceptions of these identities, confusion is apt to result when speakers don't realize that they are using these words with different senses.Racial concepts were more fine-grained in the 19th and early 20th c., corresponding more closely to ideas of ethnicity or nationality--e.g., Semites, Celts, Slavs.Note that one could have a concept of race which identifies ideas (a)-(c) as imaginary or arbitrary, just as one can have a concept of a "unicorn," understood to be an imaginary animal, or a concept of "countries lying on 0° longitude," which, while it refers to real entities, is entirely arbitrary.This position follows from a conception of race reduced to (a) - (c) alone.It is evident that (a) superficial physical differences, such as skin color, are morally irrelevant.Thus, one's concept of race need not endorse the reality of races.Skeptics about human races generally believe that some of the features ascribed to different races are imaginary (for example, the idea, held by some Americans, that blacks have an extra muscle in their foot), but more importantly, that the grouping of individuals into "races" is arbitrary--as arbitrary as political boundaries.Eliminate (f) and (g) (actual and normative social inequality) as elements of social structure and subjective understanding, and racial identities might be transformed into relatively benign bases of cultural or ancestral affiliation--much as certain varieties of white ethnicity have become in relation to one another (for example, in the U.S., being of Irish compared to Scandinavian ancestry).(4) Justify a principle of "colorblindness": According to this principle, race is an "irrelevant" characteristic of individuals and therefore never a justified basis for treating people differently.Thus, attempts to undermine (g) by attacking (e) will not go very far.(2) Explain racial hierarchy without justifying it: According to theories of social construction, racial groups are artifacts of (f) social systems of subordination and inequality that are rationalized by racist ideologies.Racial groups exist as elements of a social hierarchy of birth, although the racial concepts embedded in racist ideologies are fictitious (refer to nonexistent biological subspecies (e), or systematically distort the character or origins of purported cultural differences (d) among racial groups) and/or arbitrary (reify and naturalize arbitrary political boundaries in the real or imagined ancestral territories of origin of different "races").