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Many government agencies, such as the Strive for honesty in all scientific communications.Honestly report data, results, methods and procedures, and publication status. Do not deceive colleagues, research sponsors, or the public.
Third, many of the ethical norms help to ensure that researchers can be held accountable to the public.
For instance, federal policies on research misconduct, conflicts of interest, the are necessary in order to make sure that researchers who are funded by public money can be held accountable to the public.
While an economist might examine the cost and benefits of various policies related to global warming, an environmental ethicist could examine the ethical values and principles at stake.
Many different disciplines, , and professions have standards for behavior that suit their particular aims and goals.
One plausible explanation of these disagreements is that all people recognize some common ethical norms but interpret, apply, and balance them in different ways in light of their own values and life experiences.
For example, two people could agree that murder is wrong but disagree about the morality of abortion because they have different understandings of what it means to be a human being.
For example, many ethical norms in research, such as , data sharing policies, and confidentiality rules in peer review, are designed to protect intellectual property interests while encouraging collaboration.
Most researchers want to receive credit for their contributions and do not want to have their ideas stolen or disclosed prematurely.
Finally, many of the norms of research promote a variety of other important moral and social values, such as social responsibility, human rights, animal welfare, compliance with the law, and public health and safety.
Ethical lapses in research can significantly harm human and animal subjects, students, and the public.