Term Paper Neural Networks

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ADALINE was developed to recognize binary patterns so that if it was reading streaming bits from a phone line, it could predict the next bit.

MADALINE was the first neural network applied to a real world problem, using an adaptive filter that eliminates echoes on phone lines.

Here, each circular node represents an artificial neuron and an arrow represents a connection from the output of one artificial neuron to the input of another.

Artificial neural networks (ANN) or connectionist systems are computing systems that are inspired by, but not identical to, biological neural networks that constitute animal brains.

Despite the later success of the neural network, traditional von Neumann architecture took over the computing scene, and neural research was left behind.

Ironically, John von Neumann himself suggested the imitation of neural functions by using telegraph relays or vacuum tubes.The first multilayered network was developed in 1975, an unsupervised network.An artificial neural network is an interconnected group of nodes, inspired by a simplification of neurons in a brain.As computers became more advanced in the 1950's, it was finally possible to simulate a hypothetical neural network.The first step towards this was made by Nathanial Rochester from the IBM research laboratories.Such ideas were appealing but very difficult to implement.In addition, von Neumann architecture was gaining in popularity.There were a few advances in the field, but for the most part research was few and far between.In 1972, Kohonen and Anderson developed a similar network independently of one another, which we will discuss more about later.Such systems "learn" to perform tasks by considering examples, generally without being programmed with task-specific rules.For example, in image recognition, they might learn to identify images that contain cats by analyzing example images that have been manually labeled as "cat" or "no cat" and using the results to identify cats in other images.

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