So the total path difference between path AHGF and BCDE is CD - HG.
x-ray tubes provides a means for generating x-ray radiation in most analytical instruments.
An evacuated tube houses a tungsten filament which acts as a cathode opposite to a much larger, water cooled anode made of copper with a metal plate on it.
These include a source, a device to select and restrict the wavelengths used for measurement, a holder for the sample, a detector, and a signal converter and readout.
However, for x-ray diffraction; only a source, sample holder, and signal converter/readout are required.
Some of the light will be diffracted at an angle \(theta\), and the remainder will travel deeper into the solid.
This process will repeat for the many planes in the crystal.
, some of the light will be diffracted at that same angle away from the solid (Figure 2).
The remainder of the light will travel into the crystal and some of that light will interact with the second plane of atoms.
Calculation of the phase difference can be explained by examining Figure 1 below.
In the figure below, two parallel waves, BD and AH are striking a gradient at an angle \(θ_o\).